Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many diseases affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself, and may require special treatment.

Patients are referred to Nephrology specialists after a Urinalysis, for various reasons, such as acute kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, Hematuria, Proteinuria, Kidney Stones, Hypertension, and disorders of acid/base or electrolytes.